Test Bank (Downloadable Product) for Corrections: A Text/Reader 3rd Edition By Mary K. Stohr, Anthony Walsh, Craig Hemmens, ISBN: 9781544339221, ISBN: 9781544352084, ISBN: 9781544351971


Downlaodable Instructor Test Bank for Corrections: A Text/Reader 3rd Edition Stohr



Test Bank for Corrections: A Text/Reader 3rd Edition Stohr

Downlaodable Instructor Test Bank for Corrections: A Text/Reader 3rd Edition By Mary K. Stohr, Anthony Walsh, Craig Hemmens, ISBN: 9781544339221, ISBN: 9781544352084, ISBN: 9781544351971

Table Of Content

About the Authors
SECTION I. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections

Introduction: What Is Corrections?

From Arrest to Punishment

The Major Punishment Justifications

READING 1. The Goals of Corrections: Perspectives From the Line

READING 2. Broken Beyond Repair: Rehabilitative Penology and American Political Development

SECTION II. Correctional History: Ancient Times to Colonial Jails

Narrative of What Happened When Three Men Were First Placed in the Missouri State

Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

Colonial Jails and Prisons

READING 3. An Historical Outline of the Penitentiary System

SECTION III. Correctional History: The 17th to 20th Centuries

Jim Crow Treatment in Prisons

Introduction: The Grand Reforms

Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models

Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

The Renewed Promise of Reform

Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons

Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

READING 4. “Much and Unfortunately Neglected”: Women in Early and Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prisons

SECTION IV. Ethics and Corrections

A Novice Bows to Subcultural Pressure

Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Why People Behave Unethically

How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and to Promote Ethical Work Practices

War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

READING 5. Ethics in a Mountain State County Jail

READING 6. Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies of Actions and Controls

SECTION V. Sentencing: The Application of Punishment

Vindictive Versus Sensible Sentencing

What Is Sentencing?

Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

Habitual Offender Statutes

Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Noncustodial Sentences

Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders

Problem-Solving Courts

Drug Courts

Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

READING 7. Cracked Justice

READING 8. Determinants of State Innovations in American Sentencing and Corrections Policy: A Systematic Review

SECTION VI. Jails and Detention Centers

A Mentally Ill Inmate in the Dona Ana County Jail, New Mexico

Introduction: The Community Institution

Jail Types

Jail Inmates and Their Processing


Gender, Juveniles, Race, and Ethnicity

The Poor and the Mentally Ill

Medical Problems

Substance Abuse and Jails

Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

Innovations in Jails

READING 9. Why Do Some Jail Inmates Not Engage in Treatment and Services?

READING 10. National Study of Jail Suicide: 20 Years Later

SECTION VII. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions

The Origins of Probation

Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

The Probation Officer Role

Models of Probation Supervision

Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Probation Officer Stress

Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

Intermediate Sanctions

READING 11. A Probation Profanation: Race, Ethnicity, and Probation in a Midwestern Sample

READING 12. Sex Offender Supervision in Context: The Need for Qualitative Examinations of Social Distance in Sex Offender–Supervision Officer Relationships

SECTION VIII. Prisons and the Correctional Client

Kitchen Supervisor Sexually Abuses Two Male Inmates

Introduction: The State of Prisons

Prison Organizations

Prison Value?

Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

The Prison Subculture

Gangs and the Prison Subculture


Solutions: Strategies to Reduce Violence, Mature Coping, and Social Support

Special Populations

READING 13. Sex Differences in the Predictors of Prisoner Misconduct

READING 14. Prison Architecture and Inmate Misconduct: A Multilevel Assessment

SECTION IX. The Corrections Experience for Staff

John’s Tragic Story


The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

Why the Need to Require More Education and Training Exists

Organizational-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Organizational Culture

Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Correctional Roles

The Subculture and Socialization

Staff Interactions With Inmates

Other Issues for Staff: Stress, Burnout, Turnover


Perceived Benefits of Correctional Work

READING 15. Problems at Work: Exploring the Correlates of Role Stress Among Correctional Staff

READING 16. Gendered Adherence: Correctional Officers and Therapeutic Reform in a Reentry Facility

SECTION X. Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry

The Perils of Parole

What Is Parole?

Parole Boards

What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities

What Makes for a Successful Reentry?

Determining Parole “Success”

Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems

Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism

READING 17. Examining the Predictors of Recidivism Among Men and Women Released From Prison in Ohio

READING 18. Prisoner Reentry in a Small Metropolitan Community: Obstacles and Policy Recommendations

SECTION XI. Women and Corrections

Supervising Is Different for Women


History and Growth

Current Figures on the Number of Women and Girls in Corrections

Females in Corrections: Needs, Programming, Abuse, and Adjustment

Female Correctional Officers

READING 19. A Historical Review of Mother and Child Programs for Incarcerated Women

READING 20. Examining External Support Received in Prison and Concerns About Reentry Among Incarcerated Women

SECTION XII. Minorities and Corrections

Undocumented Workers and Their Side of the Story


Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination

A Legacy of Racism

The Connection Between Class and Race/Ethnicity

Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

Minorities: Adjustment to Incarceration

Minorities Working in Corrections

READING 21. Racial Desegregation in Prisons

READING 22. Mass Incarceration Through a Different Lens: Race, Subcontext, and Perceptions of Punitiveness of Correctional Alternatives When Compared to Prison

SECTION XIII. Juveniles and Corrections

Too Young for Life

Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

The Extent of Delinquency

The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

Childhood in the United States

The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts

Processing Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Community Corrections

Intensive Probation

Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

READING 23. Juvenile Justice: The Legacy of Punitive Policy

READING 24. Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies Among Juvenile Inmates

SECTION XIV. Legal Issues in Corrections

Prison Without Law


The Rule of Law

The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963

The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978

The Deference Period: 1979–Present

First Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Eighth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

Legal Issues in Probation and Parole

READING 25. Correctional Officer Excessive Use of Force: Civil Liability Under Section 1983

READING 26. Transgender Inmates in Prisons: A Review of Applicable Statutes and Policies

SECTION XV. Correctional Programming and Treatment

Life’s Turning Points

The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

The Shift From “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”

Evidence-Based Practices

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Substance Abuse Programming

Anger Management

Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

Mentally Ill Offenders

READING 27. Reducing Institutional Disorder: Using the Inmate Risk Assessment for Segregation Placement to Triage Treatment Services at the Front End of Prison Sentences

READING 28. Gender Differences in Prison-Based Drug Treatment Participation

SECTION XVI. The Death Penalty

A Very Unusual, Very Expensive Serial Killer

The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

Methods of Execution Used in the United States

Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

Does the Death Penalty Deter?

Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

Women and the Death Penalty

The Death Penalty and Mental Disability

The Death Penalty and Mental Illness

The Innocence Revolution

READING 29. The Execution of Wallace Wilkerson: Precedent and Portent

READING 30. How Would You Like to Die? Glossip v. Gross Deals Blow to Abolitionists

SECTION XVII. Corrections in the 21st Century

Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections



Corrections Is a Relationship Business


Concluding Thoughts

READING 31. The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model Revisited: Using Biosocial Criminology to Enhance Offender Rehabilitation

READING 32. Decarceration and Its Possible Effects on Inmates, Staff, and Communities