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Test Bank (Downloadable Product) for Corrections The Essentials 3rd Edition By Mary K. Stohr, Anthony Walsh, ISBN: 9781544324661, ISBN: 9781506365268, ISBN: 9781544344829, ISBN: 9781544359090

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Downloadable Instructor Test Bank for Corrections The Essentials 3rd Edition Stohr

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Test Bank for Corrections The Essentials 3rd Edition Stohr

Downloadable Instructor Test Bank for Corrections The Essentials 3rd Edition By Mary K. Stohr, Anthony Walsh, ISBN: 9781544324661, ISBN: 9781506365268, ISBN: 9781544344829, ISBN: 9781544359090

Table Of Content

Preface
Chapter 1. The Philosophical and Ideological Underpinnings of Corrections

Introduction: What Is Corrections?

From Arrest to Punishment

The Major Punishment Justifications

The Due Process and Crime Control Models and Cultural Comparisons

Chapter 2. Correctional History: Ancient Times to Colonial Jails

Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Enlightenment—Paradigm Shift

Colonial Jails and Prisons

Chapter 3. Correctional History: The 17th to 20th Centuries

Introduction: The Grand Reforms

Early Modern Prisons and the Pennsylvania and New York Models

Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

The Renewed Promise of Reform

Southern and Northern Prisons, the Contract and Lease Systems, and Industrial Prisons

Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

Chapter 4. Ethics and Corrections

Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Why People Behave Unethically

How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Chapter 5. Sentencing: The Application of Punishment

Introduction: What Is Sentencing?

Types of Sentences: Indeterminate, Determinate, and Mandatory

Habitual Offender Statutes

Other Types of Sentences: Shock, Split, and Non-custodial Sentences

Sentencing by Civil Commitment for Sex Offenders

Problem-Solving Courts

Drug Courts

Sentencing Disparity, Legitimate and Illegitimate

Structuring Sentencing: The Presentence Investigation Report

Structured Sentencing: Sentencing Guidelines

The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

Chapter 6. Jails and Detention Centers

Introduction: The Community Institution

Jail Inmates and Their Processing

Trends in Jail Populations

Medical Problems

Suicides, Gangs, and Sexual Violence in Jails

Innovations in Jails

Chapter 7. Community Corrections: Probation and Intermediary Sanctions

Introduction: The Origins of Probation

Number and Demographic Characteristics of Offenders on Probation

Why Do We Need Community Corrections?

The Probation Officer Role

Models of Probation Supervision

Probation Violations and Graduated Sanctions

Probation Officer Stress

Engaging the Community to Prevent Recidivism

Intermediate Sanctions

Chapter 8. Prisons and the Correctional Client

Introduction: The State of Prisons

Prison Organizations

Attributes of the Prison That Shape the Experience

The Prison Subculture

Violence

Social Support

Special Populations

Chapter 9. The Corrections Experience for Staff

Introduction: What Is a Profession?

The State of the Work in Correctional Institutions and Programs

Why Require More Education and Training?

Individual-Level Factors That Affect the Correctional Workplace

Correctional Roles

The Subculture and Socialization

Staff Interactions With Inmates

Chapter 10. Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry

Introduction: What Is Parole?

Parole Boards

What Goes In Must Come Out: Prisoner Reentry Into the Community

The Impact of Imprisonment and Reentry on Communities

What Makes for a Successful Reentry?

Determining Parole “Success”

Parole Violations and Graduated Sanctions

House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Global Positioning Systems

Concluding Remarks on Reentry and Recidivism

Chapter 11. Women and Corrections

Introduction

History and Growth

Women and Girls in Corrections Today

Female Correctional Officers

Chapter 12. Minorities and Corrections

Introduction

Defining Race, Ethnicity, Disparity, and Discrimination

A Legacy of Racism

The Connection Between Class and Race/ Ethnicity

Minorities: Policies and Practices That Have Resulted in Increased Incarceration

Minorities: Experiencing Incarceration

Chapter 13. Juveniles and Corrections

Introduction: Delinquency and Status Offending

The Extent of Delinquency

The Juvenile Brain and Juvenile Behavior

History and Philosophy of Juvenile Justice

Childhood in the United States

The Beginning of the Juvenile Courts

Processing Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Community Corrections

Intensive Probation

Residential and Institutional Juvenile Corrections

Chapter 14. Legal Issues in Corrections

Introduction

The Rule of Law

The Hands-Off Period: 1866–1963

The Prisoners’ Rights Period: 1964–1978

The Deference Period: 1997–Present

First Amendment

Fourth Amendment

Eighth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

The Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders

Curtailing Prisoner Petitions

Legal Issues in Probation and Parole
Chapter 15. Correctional Programming and Treatment

Introduction: The Rise and Fall (and Rise Again) of Rehabilitation

The Shift From “Nothing Works” to “What Works?”

Evidence-Based Practices

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Substance Abuse Programming

Anger Management

Sex Offenders and Their Treatment

Mentally Ill Offenders

Chapter 16. The Death Penalty

Introduction: The Death Penalty and Public Opinion

Methods of Execution Used in the United States

Legal Challenges to the Death Penalty

Does the Death Penalty Deter?

Financial Costs and the Death Penalty

Racial Disparity in Death Sentences

Women and the Death Penalty

The Death Penalty and Mental Disability

The Death Penalty and Mental Illness

The Innocence Revolution
Chapter 17. Corrections in the 21st Century

Introduction: Learning From the Past So That We Have Hope for the Future

Punitive Policies Yield Overuse of Corrections

Decarceration

Professionalization and Innovation

Privatization

Concluding Thoughts

Answers to Test Your Knowledge
Glossary
References
Index
About the Authors