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Test Bank (Downloadable Product) for Gangs in America’s Communities 3rd Edition By James C. Howell, Elizabeth Griffiths, ISBN: 9781544300221

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Downlaodable Instructor Test Bank for Gangs in America’s Communities 3rd Edition Howell

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Test Bank for Gangs in America’s Communities 3rd Edition Howell

Downlaodable Instructor Test Bank for Gangs in America’s Communities 3rd Edition By James C. Howell, Elizabeth Griffiths, ISBN: 9781544300221

Table Of Content

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the authors
Chapter 1: History of Gangs in the United States

Street Gang Emergence in the Northeast

Street Gang Emergence in the Midwest

Street Gang Emergence in the West Region

Street Gang Emergence in the South

Another Wave of Immigrant Groups

The Institutionalization of Street Gangs

Chapter 2: Myths and Realities of Youth Gangs

Consideration of Key Myths About Gangs

Chapter 3: Defining Gangs and Gang Members

Defining Gangs

Typologies of Gang Members and Gang Structures

Gang Subculture

Gang Graffiti

A European Gang Definition

A Recommended Gang Definition for Practical Purposes

Defining Gang Members

Demographic Characteristics of U.S. Gangs and Gang Members

Chapter 4: General Macro-Level Theories and Modern-Day Applications

The Chicago School and Development of the Social Disorganization Perspective

Application of Social Disorganization Theory to Gangs

A General Explanation of Gang Origins, Expansion, and Violence

Other Macro-Level Theories

Chapter 5: Micro-Level Theories: Developmental Life-Course Pathways and Other Micro-Level Explanations for Gang Involvement

Location of Gang Membership in Developmental Pathways

Developmental Theories

An Illustration of the Life-Course Model of Gang Involvement

A Broad Developmental Gang Theory

The Gang Joining Process

“The Digital Street”: Gangs on Social Media

Apex of Gang Member Criminal Activity

Long-Term Impact of Gang Membership on Participants

Desistance From Gang Membership

Other Micro-Level Gang Theories

Chapter 6: Girls and Gangs

Females in Early Gang Studies

Modern-Day Studies of Female Gang Members

Level of Female Gang Involvement and Seriousness of Crimes

The Question of Increasing Female Gang Involvement

The Importance of Gang Gender Composition

Female Associates of Gang Members: Risks and ReVictimization

Girls’ Unique Treatment Needs and Implications for Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 7: National Gang Problem Trends: 1996 to 2012

An Overview of Nationwide Gang Activity in the Modern Era

Nationally Reported Youth Gang Activity From the Mid-1990s

Patterns in U.S. Localities’ Histories of Gang Activity

Patterns of Gang Presence in Larger Cities

Modal Cities

Regional Variations in Gang Presence

Explaining the Emergence, Persistence, and Decline of Gang Activity

Chapter 8: Urban Gangs and Violence

The Intensity of Gangs in Cities

Serious Gang Problem Trends

A National Perspective of Gang Structures

Key Structural Features of Violent Gangs Nationwide

A Social Network Approach to Gang Cohesion

Gunshot Injury Risk Associated with Social Networks

Case Studies of Gang Problems in Large Cities

Contextual Characteristics That Contribute to Serious Gang Problems

Chapter 9: What Works: Prevention

Risk-Focused, Data-Driven, and Research-Based Gang Prevention

A Framework for Prevention and Early Intervention

Building a Continuum of Effective Delinquency Prevention and Early-Intervention Programs

Chapter 10: What Works: Intervention and Suppression

Evidence-Based Gang Programs

Promising Gang Programs

The Utility of Gang Intelligence Databases

The Comprehensive, Community-Wide Gang Program Model

The Evidence-Based Comprehensive Gang Program Model

Project Safe Neighborhoods

Glossary
References
Index