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Test Bank for Introduction to Criminology Why Do They Do It? 2nd Edition Schram

Downloadable Instructor Test Bank for Introduction to Criminology Why Do They Do It? 2nd Edition By Pamela J. Schram, Stephen G. Tibbetts, ISBN: 9781506378435, ISBN: 9781506347561, ISBN: 9781506379555, ISBN: 9781506383248

Table Of Content

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Chapter 1: Introduction to Criminology

Introduction

Key Concepts to Understanding Criminology

The Criminal Justice System

Criminology Theory

Victimology

Conclusion

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 2: Measuring Crime

Introduction

Crime Data From Law Enforcement Agencies

Crime Data from Victims of Crime: The National Crime Victimization Survey

Crime Data from Self-Report Surveys

Additional Approaches to Collecting Crime Data

Conclusion

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web resources

Chapter 3: Classical School of Criminology Thought

Introduction

Pre-Classical Perspectives of Crime and Punishment

The Age of Enlightenment

The Classical School of Criminology

Impact of Beccaria’s Work on Other Theorists

The Neoclassical School of Criminology

Loss of Dominance of Classical/ Neoclassical Theory

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 3

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 4: Contemporary Classical and Deterrence Research

Introduction

Rebirth of Deterrence Theory and Contemporary Research

Rational Choice Theory

Routine Activities Theory

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 4

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 5: Early Positivism

Introduction

Early Biological Theories of Behavior

Physiognomy

Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminals

AFTER Lombroso: The IQ-Testing Era

Body Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping

Policy Implications

Case Study Revisited: Javier

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 5

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 6: Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior

Introduction

Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Brain Injuries

Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

Biosocial Approaches Toward Explaining Criminal Behavior

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 6

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 7: Psychological/ Trait Theories of Crime

Introduction

Early Psychological Theorizing Regarding Criminal Behavior

John Bowlby: Attachment Theory

Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 7

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 8: Social Structure Theories of Crime I

Introduction

Early Theories of Social Structure: Early to Late 1800s

Durkheim and the Concept of Anomie

Merton’s Strain Theory

Variations of Merton’s Strain Theory

General Strain Theory

Summary of Strain Theories

Policy Implications of Strain Theory

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 8

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 9: Social Structure Theories of Crime II

Introduction

The Ecological School and the Chicago School of Criminology

Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Social Disorganization

Cultural and Subcultural Theories of Crime

Criticisms of Cultural Theories of Crime

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 9

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Key Terms

Chapter 10: Social Process and Control Theories of Crime

Introduction

Learning Theories

Differential Reinforcement Theory

Psychological Learning Models

Neutralization Theory

Control Theories

Early Control Theories of Human Behavior

Early Control Theories of Crime

Modern Social Control Theories

Integrated Social Control Theories

A General Theory of Crime: Low Self-Control

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 10

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 11: Labeling Theory and Conflict/Marxist/ Radical Theories of Crime

Introduction

Labeling Theory

Foundation of Labeling Theory

Evaluating Labeling Theory

Conflict Perspectives

The Conservative (Pluralist) Conflict Perspectives

The Radical Conflict Perspectives

Additional Explanations of Crime Using a Marxist Framework

Evaluating Conflict Theories

Additional Critical Theories

Policies Related to Labeling and Conflict Theories of Crime

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 11

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 12: Feminist Theories of Crime

Introduction

Feminist Perspectives on Gender

Traditional Theories of Female Crime

Feminist Critiques of Previous Research Studying Women and Crime

Liberation Thesis

Power-Control Theory

Feminist Perspectives on Understanding Crime and Criminal Behavior

Critiques of Feminist Theories

Policies Based on Feminist Theories of Crime

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 12

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 13: Developmental/ Life-Course Perspectives criminality

Basic Concepts and Early Developmental Theory

Antidevelopmental Theory: Low Self-Control Theory

Modern Developmental/Life-Course Perspectives

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Summary of Theories in Chapter 13

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 14: White-Collar Crime, Organized Crime, and Cybercrime

Introduction

What is White-Collar Crime?

Definitions and History of White-Collar Crime

Incidence and Impact of White-Collar Crime on Society

Types of White-Collar Crime

Theoretical Explanations of White-Collar Crime

What is Organized Crime?

Criminal Justice Responses to Organized Crime

What is Cybercrime?

Conclusion

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 15: Hate Crimes, Terrorism, and Home land Security

Introduction

What Is a Hate Crime?

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994

Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996

Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009

Model State Legislation: Hate Crimes/ Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness

Multicide

School Attacks

Disparity in Rates of Committing Multicide Across Race and Religious Ideology

What Is Terrorism?

Financial Support

Influence of the Media

Domestic Terrorism

What Is Homeland Security?

Definition of Homeland Security

Homeland Security Organizational Network

Bureaucratic Problems and Solutions

Issues Related to Civil Liberties

Human Rights

The Constitution

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Chapter 16: Drugs and Crime

Introduction

Commonly Abused Drugs

Trends of Drug Use

The Drug-Crime Link

Modern Policies Related to Reducing Drug Use

Recommendations for Future Policies

Conclusion

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Web Resources

Glossary
Notes
Index