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Test Bank for Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing 13th Edition Kennedy

Downloadable Instructor Test Bank for Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 13th Edition, X.J.Kennedy, Dana Gioia, ISBN-10: 0134586387, ISBN-13: 9780134586380

Table of Contents

VOLUME 1: FICTION
Talking with Amy Tan
1. Reading a Story
2. Point of View
3. Character
4. Setting
5. Tone and Style
6. Theme
7. Symbol
8. Reading Long Stories
9. Genre Fiction
10. Latin American Fiction
11. Critical Casebook: Flannery O’Connor
12. Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth (Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Alice Walker)
13. Stories for Further Reading

VOLUME 2: POETRY
Talking With Kay Ryan
14. Reading a Poem
15. Listening To a Voice
16. Words
17. Saying and Suggesting
18. Imagery
19. Figures of Speech
20. Song
21. Sound
22. Rhythm
23. Closed Form
24. Open Form
25. Symbol
26. Myth and Narrative
27. Poetry and Personal Identity
28. Translation
29. Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America
30. Recognizing Excellence
31. What Is Poetry?
32. Three Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost
33. Critical Casebook: T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
34. Poems for Further Reading

VOLUME 3: DRAMA
Talking with David Ives
35. Reading a Play
36. Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy
37. Critical Casebook: Sophocles
38. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare
39. The Modern Theater
40. Evaluating a Play
41. Plays for Further Reading

VOLUME 4: WRITING
42. Writing About LIterature
43. Writing About a Story
44. Writing About a Poem
45. Writing About a Play
46. Writing a Research Paper
47. Writing As Discovery: Keeping a Journal
48. Writing an Essay Exam
29. Critical Approaches to Literature

Glossary of Literary Terms

Literary Credits

Photo Credits

Index of Major Themes

Index of First Lines of Poetry

Index of Authors and Titles

Index of Literary Terms

COMPREHENSIVE CONTENTS

VOLUME 1 Fiction

Talking with Amy Tan

1. Reading a Story

THE ART OF FICTION

TYPES OF SHORT FICTION

Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra

A student tries to flee from Death in this brief, sardonic fable.

Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun

The North Wind and the Sun argue who is stronger and decide to try their powers on an unsuspecting traveler.

Bidpai, The Tortoise and the Geese

A fable that gives another dimension to Andrew Lang’s quip, “He missed an invaluable opportunity to hold his tongue.”

Chuang Tzu, Independence

The Prince of Ch’u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death

Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.

PLOT

THE SHORT STORY

John Updike, A & P

In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Wilhelm Grimm on Writing, On the Nature of Fairy Tales

THINKING ABOUT PLOT

CHECKLIST: Writing About Plot

TOPICS FOR WRITING on plot

TERMS FOR REVIEW

2. Point of View

IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW

TYPES OF NARRATORS

how much does a narrator know?

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart

The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.

Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.

Since no one appreciates Sister, she decides to live at the Post Office. After meeting her family, you won’t blame her.

James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues

Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African American Writer

THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW

CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View

topics for writing ON POINT OF VIEW

TERMS FOR REVIEW

3. Character

CHARACTERization

motvation

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house.

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of Arnold Friend, a spellbinding imitation teenager.

Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties

Two teenage boys try to navigate their way through a party filled with exotic, mysterious girls.

Raymond Carver, Cathedral

He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn’t even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language

THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER

CHECKLIST: Writing About Character

topics for writing ON CHARACTER

TERMS FOR REVIEW

4. Setting

ELEMENTS OF SETTING

HISTORICAL FICTION

REGIONALISM

NATURALISM

Kate Chopin, The Storm

Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?

Jack London, To Build a Fire

Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force.

ZZ Packer, Brownies

A Brownie troop of African American girls at camp declare war on a rival troop only to discover their humiliating mistake.

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets

A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Amy Tan on Writing, Developing a Setting

THINKING ABOUT SETTING

CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

5. Tone and Style

TONE

STYLE

DICTION

Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place

All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright café. What does he need more than brandy?

William Faulkner, Barn Burning

This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.

IRONY

O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi

A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word “irony.”

Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband

When Edie meets the carnival pilot, her life gets more complicated than she expects.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style

THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone and Style

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE

TERMS FOR REVIEW

6. Theme

PLOT VERSUS THEME

summarizing the THEME

FINDING THE THEME

Stephen Crane, The Open Boat

In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship.

Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street

Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don’t always turn out the way we want them to.

Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son

A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.

Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron

Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction

THINKING ABOUT THEME

CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME

TERMS FOR REVIEW

7. Symbol

ALLEGORY

SYMBOLS

RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums

Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved–then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.

Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain

Anders is in line when armed robbers enter the bank, and he can’t help but get involved.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone’s prosperity depends on a hidden evil.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery

Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Shirley Jackson on Writing, Biography of a Story

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols

Sample Student Paper on Symbols, An Analysis of the Symbolism in Steinbeck’s “The Chrysanthemums”

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS

TERMS FOR REVIEW

8. Reading Long Stories and Novels

ORIGINS OF THE NOVEL

NOVELISTIC METHODS

READING NOVELS

Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych

The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth.

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis

“When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect.” Kafka’s famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis

THINKING ABOUT LONG STORIES AND NOVELS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Long Stories and Novels

TOPICS FOR WRITING on long stories and novels

TERMS FOR REVIEW

9. Genre Fiction

ROMANCE VERSUS REALISM

WHAT IS GENRE?

TYPES OF GENRE FICTION

GENRE AND POPULAR CULTURE

Ray Bradbury, A Sound of Thunder

In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future’s not what it used to be.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Wife’s Story

Another full moon, and another terrible transformation–a surprising reversal of a familiar story.

H. P. Lovecraft, The Outsider

He had been locked in a gothic castle for his entire life, until the day he escaped, but what he discovered outside sent him running back to his dark captivity.

Dashiell Hammett, One Hour

Someone killed a man named Newhouse in broad daylight on a San Francisco street. Our detective is on the case.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ray Bradbury on Writing, Fall in Love at the Library

TOPICS FOR WRITING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

10. Latin American Fiction

“EL BOOM”

MAGIC REALISM

AFTER THE BOOM

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark

A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time, he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results.

Gabriel García Márquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

What do you do when a worn-out angel crashes in your yard? Sell tickets or call the priest?

Juan Rulfo, Tell Them Not to Kill Me!

A violent episode from decades past catches up with an old man. Will he be saved from the firing squad?

Inés Arredondo, The Shunammite

When Luisa went to visit her dying uncle, she had no idea that her life was about to change forever.

Writing effectively

Jorge Luis Borges on Writing, On Storytelling

TOPICS FOR WRITING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

11. Critical Casebook: Flannery O’Connor

FLANNERY O’CONNOR

A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror–and one moment of redeeming grace.

Revelation

Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus’s favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor’s waiting room.

Parker’s Back

A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife–by having himself tattooed.

FLANNERY O’CONNOR ON WRITING

Insights into “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”

On Her Catholic Faith

CRITICS ON FLANNERY O’CONNOR

J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit

Louise S. Cowan, The Character of Mrs. Turpin in “Revelation”

Damian J. Ference, from “No Vague Believer”

Dean Flower, Listening to Flannery O’Connor

Lucinda Williams, Meeting Flannery O’Connor

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

TOPICS FOR WRITING

12. Critical Casebook: Three Stories in Depth

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE

Young Goodman Brown

Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees–or dreams he sees–good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite.

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE ON WRITING

Reflections on Truth and Clarity in Literature

The Obscurest Man in American Letters

CRITICS ON HAWTHORNE

Herman Melville, Excerpt from a Review of Mosses from an Old Manse

Edgar Allan Poe, The Genius of Hawthorne’s Short Stories

CRITICS ON “YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN”

Richard H. Fogle, Ambiguity in “Young Goodman Brown”

Paul J. Hurley, Evil Wherever He Looks

Nancy Bunge, Complacency and Community

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

The Yellow Wallpaper

A doctor prescribes a “rest cure” for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic.

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN ON WRITING

Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Whatever Is

The Nervous Breakdown of Women

CRITICS ON “THE YELLOW WALLPAPER”

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement

ALICE WALKER

Everyday Use

When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.

ALICE WALKER ON WRITING

Reflections on Writing and Women’s Lives

CRITICS ON “EVERYDAY USE”

Barbara T. Christian, “Everyday Use” and the Black Power Movement

Mary Helen Washington, “Everyday Use” as a Portrait of the Artist

Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in “Everyday Use”

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

TOPICS FOR WRITING

13. Stories For Further Reading

Chinua Achebe, Dead Men’s Path

The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree.

Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona

The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he’s been avoiding for years.

Isabel Allende, The Judge’s Wife

Revenge can take many different forms, but few are as strange as the revenge taken in this passionate tale.

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings

John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes.

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

At last, Peyton Farquhar’s neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War.

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake

Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three “dangerous characters” learn a lesson one grim night.

Willa Cather, Paul’s Case

Paul’s teachers can’t understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams.

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

“There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name.”

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal

A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech to a gathering of a Southern town’s leading white citizens. What promises to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery.

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat

Delia’s hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman.

Ha Jin, Saboteur

When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge.

James Joyce, Araby

If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

“Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming.” An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.

Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies

Mr. Kapasi’s life had settled into a quiet pattern–and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it.

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner

Wild-eyed “as if something were going to explode in him,” the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill

Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park.

Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace

A woman enjoys one night of luxury–and then spends years of her life paying for it.

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried

What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man’s necessities differed.

Daniel Orozco, Orientation

“Those are the offices and these are the cubicles.” Welcome to the first day of your new job.

David Foster Wallace, Everything Is Green

Mayfly and Mitch discuss difficult matters in their trailer.

Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House

Whatever hour you woke, a door was shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walked, hand in hand.

VOLUME 2 Poetry

Talking with Kay Ryan

14. Reading A Poem

POETRY OR VERSE

HOW TO READ A POEM

Paraphrase

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Lyric Poetry

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

Narrative Poetry

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence

Robert Frost, “Out, Out–”

DRAMATIC POETRY

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

DIDACTIC POETRY

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”

THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING

William Stafford, Ask Me

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of “Ask Me”

CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

15. Listening To a Voice

TONE

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book

Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles

Gwendolyn Brooks, Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter

THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal

Anonymous, Dog Haiku

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry

Charlotte Mew, The Farmer’s Bride

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

IRONY

Robert Creeley, Oh No

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen

Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry

THINKING ABOUT TONE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE

Sample Student Paper, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

16. Words

LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say

DICTION

John Masefield, Cargoes

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You

THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead

Samuel Menashe, Bread

Carl Sandburg, Grass

WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes

Kay Ryan, Blandeur

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

Billy Collins, The Names

Anonymous, Carnation Milk

Gina Valdés, English con Salsa

William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold

William Wordsworth, Mutability

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Lewis Carroll, Humpty Dumpty Explicates “Jabberwocky”

THINKING ABOUT DICTION

CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE

TERMS FOR REVIEW

17. Saying and Suggesting

DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

William Blake, London

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock

E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i

Maria Hummel, The Tree

Timothy Steele, Epitaph

Diane Thiel, The Minefield

H. D., Sea Rose

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears

Anne-Marie Thompson, Audiation

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning “Love Calls Us to the Things of This World”

THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

CHECKLIST: Writing About What a Poem Says and Suggests

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

TERMS FOR REVIEW

18. Imagery

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel

IMAGERY

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence

Jean Toomer, Reapers

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty

ABOUT HAIKU

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell

Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket

HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain

Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs

Neiji Ozawa, The war–this year

CONTEMPORARY HAIKU

Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood

Lee Gurga, Visitor’s Room

Penny Harter, broken bowl

Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again

Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave

Garry Gay, Hole in the ozone

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art

Walt Whitman, The Runner

H. D., Heat

William Carlos Williams, El Hombre

Billy Collins, Embrace

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter

Chana Bloch, Tired Sex

Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout

Kevin Prufer, Pause, Pause

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image

THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY

CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY

Sample Student Paper, Faded Beauty: Elizabeth Bishop’s Use of Imagery in “The Fish”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

19. Figures of Speech

WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

METAPHOR AND SIMILE

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood — a Loaded Gun

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

N. Scott Momaday, Simile

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low — in my Regard

Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home

OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH

James Stephens, The Wind

Robinson Jeffers, Hands

Margaret Atwood, You fit into me

George Herbert, The Pulley

Dana Gioia, Money

Carl Sandburg, Fog

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor

Robert Frost, The Secret Sits

Kay Ryan, Turtle

Emily Brontë, Love and Friendship

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor

THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH

TERMS FOR REVIEW

20. Song

SINGING AND SAYING

Ben Jonson, To Celia

James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away

William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o’ the sun

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

Paul Simon, Richard Cory

BALLADS

Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham

BLUES

Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues

RAP

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Neko Case, This Tornado Loves You

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin’

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Bob Dylan on Writing, Rhythm, Rime, and Songwriting from the Outside

THINKING ABOUT POETRY AND SONG

CHECKLIST: Writing About Song Lyrics

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SONG LYRICS

TERMS FOR REVIEW

21. Sound

SOUND AS MEANING

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

Aphra Behn, When maidens are young

ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE

Frances Cornford, The Watch

James Joyce, All day I hear

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls

RIME

William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus

Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur

How to read a POEM ALOUD

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane

William Shakespeare, When Daisies Pied and Violets Blue

T. S. Eliot, Virginia

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry

THINKING ABOUT A POEM’S SOUND

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem’s Sound

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND

TERMS FOR REVIEW

22. Rhythm

STRESSES AND PAUSES

STRESS AND Meaning

line endings

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break

George Gordon, Lord Byron, So We’ll Go No More a-Roving

Dorothy Parker, Résumé

METER

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme

Edith Sitwell, Mariner Man

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty

William Carlos Williams, Smell!

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing “We Real Cool”

THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM

CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

23. Closed Form

the value of form

FORMAL PATTERNS

Ernest Dowson, “Days of Wine and Roses”

John Donne, Song (“Go and catch a falling star”)

Thomas M. Disch, Zewhyexary

THE SONNET

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Michael Drayton, Since there’s no help, come let us kiss and part

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You

Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded

A. E. Stallings, Aftershocks

Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the Dead

R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet

Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

THE EPIGRAM

Sir John Harrington, Of Treason

William Blake, To H–

Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams

Dorothy Parker, The Actress

John Frederick Nims, Contemplation

Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue

Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc’s “Fatigue”

Anonymous, Epitaph On A Dentist

OTHER FORMS

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

Robert Bridges, Triolet

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

A. E. Stallings on Writing, On Form and Artifice

THINKING ABOUT A SONNET

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Sonnet

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON closed form

TERMS FOR REVIEW

24. Open Form

Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway

FREE VERSE

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death

William Carlos Williams, The Dance

Stephen Crane, The Heart

Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford

Ezra Pound, Salutation

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

PROSE POETRY

Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness

Gertrude Stein, from Tender Buttons

VISUAL POETRY

George Herbert, Easter Wings

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow

CONCRETE POETRY

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

E. E. Cummings, in Just-

Francisco X. Alarcón, Frontera / Border

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red

Naomi Shihab Nye, The Traveling Onion

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future

THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

25. Symbol

THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL

T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork

THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT

IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

ALLEGORY

Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed

George Herbert, Redemption

Edwin Markham, Outwitted

Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation

Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (XXIX)

Translated by Dana Gioia, Traveler

Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife

Ted Kooser, Carrie

Mary Oliver, Wild Geese

Tami Haaland, Lipstick

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover

Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar

William Blake, The Tyger

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

26. Myth and Narrative

The subjects and uses OF MYTH

origins OF MYTH

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us

H. D., Helen

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen

ARCHETYPE

Louise Bogan, Medusa

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci

PERSONAL MYTH

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School

MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE

Charles Martin, Taken Up

for review and further study

A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Anne Sexton, Cinderella

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Diane Thiel on Writing, Map of Myth

THINKING ABOUT MYTH

CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH

Sample Student Paper, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.’s “Helen”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

27. Poetry and Personal Identity

CONFESSIONAL POETRY

Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus

IDENTITY POETICS

Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingüe

CULTURE, RACE, AND ETHNICITY

Claude McKay, America

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California

Francisco X. Alarcón, The X in My Name

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera