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Test Bank (Downloadable Product) for Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 14th Edition, X. J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia, Dan Stone, ISBN-10: 0134668464, ISBN-13: 9780134668468

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Test Bank for Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing 14th Edition Kennedy

Downloadable Instructor Test Bank for Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, 14th Edition, X. J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia, Dan Stone, ISBN-10: 0134668464, ISBN-13: 9780134668468

Table of Contents

FICTION

Talking with Amy Tan

1. READING A STORY

THE ART OF FICTION

TYPES OF SHORT FICTION

Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra A student tries to flee from Death in this brief, sardonic fable.

Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes Ever wonder where the phrase “sour grapes” comes from? Find out in this classic fable.

Bidpai, The Camel and His Friends With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn’t need.

Chuang Tzu, Independence The Prince of Ch’u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.

PLOT

THE SHORT STORY

John Updike, A & P In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Wilhelm Grimm on Writing, On the Nature of Fairy Tales

THINKING ABOUT PLOT

CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PLOT

TERMS FOR REVIEW

2. POINT OF VIEW

IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW

TYPES OF NARRATORS

HOW MUCH DOES A NARRATOR KNOW?

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defies the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?

Muriel Spark, The First Year of My Life An omniscient infant narrator, able to access any conversation or scene on the planet, is born into a time of war.

Eudora Welty, A Worn Path When the man says to old Phoenix, “You must be a hundred years old, and scared of nothing,” he might be exaggerating, but not by much.

James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African American Writer

THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW

CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON POINT OF VIEW

TERMS FOR REVIEW

3. CHARACTER

CHARACTERIZATION

MOTIVATION

Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain Anders is in line when armed robbers enter the bank, and he can’t help but get involved.

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of Arnold Friend, a spellbinding imitation teenager.

Toni Morrison, Recitatif Over many decades, two women’s lives continue to collide, as they find that their relationship is complicated by the challenges of race, class, and circumstance.

Raymond Carver, Cathedral He never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn’t even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language

THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER

CHECKLIST: Writing about Character

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON CHARACTER

TERMS FOR REVIEW

4. SETTING

ELEMENTS OF SETTING

HISTORICAL FICTION

REGIONALISM

NATURALISM

HOW SETTING CAN HARMONIZE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS OF A STORY

Kate Chopin, The Storm Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?

Jack London, To Build a Fire Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force.

Ron Carlson, At the Jim Bridger Two men nearly freeze to death in the Wyoming wilderness. How does their intimate encounter with their mortality change them?

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half-sisters she never knew existed.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Amy Tan on Writing, Developing a Setting

THINKING ABOUT SETTING

CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

5. TONE AND STYLE

TONE

STYLE

DICTION

Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright café. What does he need more than brandy?

William Faulkner, Barn Burning This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.

IRONY

O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word “irony.”

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers several different outcomes.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style

THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE

CHECKLIST: Writing about Tone and Style

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE

TERMS FOR REVIEW

6. THEME

PLOT VERSUS THEME

SUMMARIZING THE THEME

FINDING THE THEME

Stephen Crane, The Open Boat In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship.

Sandra Cisneros, Barbie-Q The trouble with buying Barbie dolls is that you want all the clothes, companions, and accessories. But in this neighborhood, things suddenly change.

Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.

Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron Are you handsome? Then off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Then a transmitter will sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction

THINKING ABOUT THEME

CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME

TERMS FOR REVIEW

7. SYMBOL

ALLEGORY

SYMBOLS

RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved–then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.

Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace A woman enjoys one night of luxury, and then spends years of her life paying for it.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone’s prosperity depends on a hidden evil.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery Splintered and faded, the sinister black box has worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town can remember.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Shirley Jackson on Writing, Biography of a Story

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols

Sample Student Paper, An Analysis of the Symbolism in Steinbeck’s “The Chrysanthemums”

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS

TERMS FOR REVIEW

8. GENRE FICTION

ROMANCE VERSUS REALISM

WHAT IS GENRE?

COMMON TYPES OF GENRE FICTION

GENRE AND POPULAR CULTURE

Ray Bradbury, A Sound of Thunder In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future’s not what it used to be.

Kelly Link, The Faery Handbag The magical handbag allows one to access other worlds, with both beautiful and dark consequences.

H. P. Lovecraft, The Outsider He has been locked in a gothic castle for his entire life, until the day he escapes, but what he discovers outside sends him running back to his dark captivity.

Dashiell Hammett, One Hour Someone killed a man named Newhouse in broad daylight on a San Francisco street. Our detective is on the case.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ray Bradbury on Writing, Falling in Love at the Library

TOPICS FOR WRITING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

9. READING LONG STORIES AND NOVELS

ORIGINS OF THE NOVEL

NOVELISTIC METHODS

READING NOVELS

Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth.

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis “When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect.” Kafka’s famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature.

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Franz Kafka on Writing, Gustav Janouch Discussing The Metamorphosis

THINKING ABOUT LONG STORIES AND NOVELS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Long Stories and Novels

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON LONG STORIES AND NOVELS

TERMS FOR REVIEW

10. LATIN AMERICAN FICTION

EL BOOM

MAGIC REALISM

AFTER EL BOOM

ARGENTINA: Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time, he reads the Gospel to a family, with unforeseen results.

COLOMBIA: Gabriel García Márquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World Even in death, a mysterious stranger has a profound effect on all of the people in the village.

CHILE: Isabel Allende, Revenge The young, beautiful Dulce Rosa Orellano is Queen of the Carnival and the daughter of a beloved Senator, and then a night of terrible violence changes her life forever.

MEXICO: Juan Rulfo, Tell Them Not to Kill Me! A violent episode from decades past catches up with an old man. Will he be saved from the firing squad?

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Jorge Luis Borges on Writing, On Storytelling

TOPICS FOR WRITING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

11. CRITICAL CASEBOOK: Flannery O’Connor

FLANNERY O’CONNOR

A Good Man Is Hard to Find Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror–and one moment of redeeming grace.

Revelation Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus’s favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor’s waiting room.

Parker’s Back A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife–by having himself

tattooed.

FLANNERY O’CONNOR ON WRITING

Insights into “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”

On Her Catholic Faith

CRITICS ON FLANNERY O’CONNOR

Benjamin Percy, There Will Be Blood: Violence in Flannery O’Connor’s Fiction

J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit

Louise S. Cowan, The Character of Mrs. Turpin in “Revelation”

Damian J. Ference, No Vague Believer

Lucinda Williams, Meeting Flannery O’Connor

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FLANNERY O’CONNOR

12. CRITICAL CASEBOOK: Three Stories in Depth

EDGAR ALLAN POE

The Tell-Tale Heart The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.

EDGAR ALLAN POE ON WRITING

On Imagination

The Philosophy of Composition

CRITICS ON “THE TELL-TALE HEART”

Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in “The Tell-Tale Heart”

Scott Peeples, “The Tell-Tale Heart” as a Love Story

Charles Baudelaire, Poe’s Characters

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN

The Yellow Wallpaper A doctor prescribes a “rest cure” for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic.

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN ON WRITING

Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper”

The Nervous Breakdown of Women

CRITICS ON “THE YELLOW WALLPAPER”

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement

Elizabeth Ammons, Biographical Echoes in “The Yellow Wallpaper”

ALICE WALKER

Everyday Use When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her

African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.

ALICE WALKER ON WRITING

The Black Woman Writer in America

Reflections on Writing and Women’s Lives

CRITICS ON “EVERYDAY USE”

Barbara T. Christian, “Everyday Use” and the Black Power Movement

Mary Helen Washington, “Everyday Use” as a Portrait of the Artist

Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in “Everyday Use”

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

TOPICS FOR WRITING

13. GALLERY OF INTERNATIONAL VOICES

NIGERIA: Chinua Achebe, Dead Men’s Path The new headmaster of the village school is determined to fight superstition, but the villagers do not agree.

BANGLADESH: Tahmima Anam, Garments The girl who works next to Jesmin in the garments factory says one day, “My boyfriend wants to marry you.” Should Jesmin become this man’s third wife?

MEXICO: Inés Arredondo, The Shunammite When Luisa visits her dying uncle, she has no idea that her life is about to change forever.

ALGERIA/FRANCE: Albert Camus, The Guest A prisoner is delivered to a schoolhouse on a remote hillside, and the schoolmaster must decide what to do with him.

SOUTH AFRICA: Nadine Gordimer, The Defeated In a dusty South African mining town, two schoolgirls become unlikely friends. As they grow up together, they start to grow apart.

JAPAN: Kazuo Ishiguro, A Family Supper Something very odd lurks beneath the surface of this family supper, and it might prove fatal.

CHINA: Ha Jin, Saboteur When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge.

ANTIGUA: Jamaica Kincaid, Girl “Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming.” An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.

EGYPT: Naguib Mahfouz, The Lawsuit He thought he’d seen the last of his late father’s second wife, but now she’s back to trouble his peaceful existence.

INDIA: Bharati Mukherjee, Saints Shawn wanders around his neighborhood at night, imagining an existence other than the sad, confusing, and often frightening home life dominated by the unwelcome presence of his mom’s boyfriend, Wayne.

CANADA: Alice Munro, Wild Swans Rose has a disturbing and transformative experience on her first train ride to the big city.

IRAN: Marjane Satrapi, Kim Wilde (from Persepolis) During the Islamic Revolution, rock ‘n’ roll contraband is smuggled into Iran.

14. STORIES FOR FURTHER READING

Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he’s been avoiding for years.

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears to be a wasteland. One grim night on its shore, three “dangerous characters” learn a lesson.

Willa Cather, Paul’s Case Paul’s teachers can’t understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams.

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour “There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name.”

Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties Two teenage boys try to navigate their way through a party filled with exotic, mysterious girls.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees–or dreams he sees–good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite.

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat Delia’s hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman.

James Joyce, Araby If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.

Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies Mr. Kapasi’s life had settled into a quiet pattern–and then Mrs. Das and her family come into it.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happens to share a bench with two lovers in the park.

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried What each soldier carries into the combat zone is largely determined by necessity, but each man’s necessities differ.

Daniel Orozco, Orientation “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles.” Welcome to the first day of your new job.

George Saunders, Puppy A puppy for sale exposes the vast class differences between seller and buyer.

Wells Tower, Everything Ravaged, Everything Burned Marauders ransack an island in a terrible show of violence, but not all the pirates have dark hearts.

Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House Whatever hour you wake, a door is shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walks, hand in hand.

POETRY

Talking with Kay Ryan

15. READING A POEM

POETRY OR VERSE

HOW TO READ A POEM

PARAPHRASE

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

LYRIC POETRY

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

NARRATIVE POETRY

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence

Robert Frost, “Out, Out–”

DRAMATIC POETRY

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

DIDACTIC POETRY

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”

THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING

William Stafford, Ask Me

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of “Ask Me”

CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING

TERMS FOR REVIEW

16. LISTENING TO A VOICE

TONE

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book

Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilingüe

Franz Wright, Alcohol

Gwendolyn Brooks, Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward.

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter

THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal

Anonymous, Dog Haiku

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry

Karen An-hwei Lee, Rainfall

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

IRONY

Robert Creeley, Oh No

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen

Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry

THINKING ABOUT TONE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE

Sample Student Paper, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

17. WORDS

LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say

DICTION

John Masefield, Cargoes

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You

THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath

Samuel Menashe, Bread

Carl Sandburg, Grass

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead

WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes

Kay Ryan, Blandeur

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment

Julie Larios, What Bee Did

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Sarah Cortez, Adam

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

Anonymous, Carnation Milk

Gina Valdés, English con Salsa

William Wordsworth, My heart leaps up when I behold

William Wordsworth, Mutability

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Lewis Carroll on Writing, Humpty Dumpty Explicates “Jabberwocky”

THINKING ABOUT DICTION

CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE

TERMS FOR REVIEW

18. SAYING AND SUGGESTING

DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

William Blake, London

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock

E. E. Cummings, “next to of course god america i

Maria Hummel, The Tree

Timothy Steele, Epitaph

Hieu Minh Nguyen, Arranged

Diane Thiel, The Minefield

H.D., Sea Rose

Po Chü-i, The Cranes

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears

Anne-Marie Thompson, Audiation

Rebecca Foust, What You Work For 71

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning “Love Calls Us to the Things of This World”

THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

CHECKLIST: Writing About What A Poem Says And Suggests

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION

TERMS FOR REVIEW

19. IMAGERY

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel

IMAGERY

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence

Jean Toomer, Reapers

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty

ABOUT HAIKU

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell

Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket

HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain

Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs

Neiji Ozawa, The war–this year

CONTEMPORARY HAIKU

Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood

Yone Noguchi, Oh, How Cool

Penny Harter, broken bowl

Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again

Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave

Garry Gay, Hole in the ozone

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

John Keats, Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art

Walt Whitman, The Runner

H.D., Heat

William Carlos Williams, El Hombre

Billy Collins, Embrace

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter

Chana Bloch, Tired Sex

Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout

Angela Alaimo O’Donnell, Tattoo

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image

THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY

CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY

Sample Student Paper, Faded Beauty: Bishop’s Use of Imagery in “The Fish”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

20. FIGURES OF SPEECH

WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?

METAPHOR AND SIMILE

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood — a Loaded Gun

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

N. Scott Momaday, Simile

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low — in my Regard

Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home

Cody Walker, I’m Like

OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH

James Stephens, The Wind

Robinson Jeffers, Hands

Aurora Stewart, Word Play

George Herbert, The Pulley

Dana Gioia, Money

Carl Sandburg, Fog

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor

Robert Frost, A Patch of Old Snow

Kay Ryan, Turtle

Emily Brontë, Love and Friendship

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor

THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS

CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH

TERMS FOR REVIEW

21. SONG

SINGING AND SAYING

Ben Jonson, To Celia

James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away

William Shakespeare, O mistress mine

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

Paul Simon, Richard Cory

BALLADS

Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham

BLUES

Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues

Ishmael Reed, Oakland Blues

RAP AND PERFORMANCE POETRY

Patricia Smith, Hip-hop Ghazel

Taylor Mali, Totally like whatever, you know?

Franny Choi, Choi Jeong Min

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Thao & The Get Down Stay Down (Thao Nguyen), Meticulous Bird

Father John Misty (Joshua Tillman), Bored in the USA

St. Vincent (Annie Clark), Severed Crossed Fingers

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin’

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Bob Dylan on Writing, Rhythm, Rime, and Songwriting from the Outside

THINKING ABOUT POETRY AND SONG

CHECKLIST: Writing About Song Lyrics

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SONG

TERMS FOR REVIEW

22. SOUND

SOUND AS MEANING

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

Aphra Behn, When maidens are young

ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE

Frances Cornford, The Watch

James Joyce, All day I hear

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls

RIME

William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus

Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz

David Barber, Aria

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur

HOW TO READ A POEM ALOUD

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane

William Shakespeare, When daisies pied and violets blue

T. S. Eliot, Virginia

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry

THINKING ABOUT A POEM’S SOUND

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem’s Sound

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND

TERMS FOR REVIEW

23. RHYTHM

STRESSES AND PAUSES

STRESS AND MEANING

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

George Gordon, Lord Byron, So We’ll Go No More a-Roving

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break

Dorothy Parker, Résumé

METER

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme

Edith Sitwell, Mariner Man

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty

William Carlos Williams, Smell!

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing “We Real Cool”

THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM

CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

24. CLOSED FORM

THE VALUE OF FORM

FORMAL PATTERNS

Ernest Dowson, Days of wine and roses

John Donne, Song (“Go and catch a falling star”)

Thomas M. Disch, Zewhyexary

THE SONNET

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Michael Drayton, Since there’s no help, come let us kiss and part

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You

Luis J. Rodríguez, Praise to Shoes

A. E. Stallings, Sine Qua Non

Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the Dead

R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet

Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

THE EPIGRAM

Sir John Harrington, Of Treason

William Blake, To H–

Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams

John Frederick Nims, Contemplation

Anonymous, Epitaph on a dentist

Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue

Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc’s “Fatigue”

Wendy Videlock, If Not for the Dark

OTHER FORMS

Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat

Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring

A Book of Verses underneath the Bough

The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ

Ah Love! could you and I with Him conspire

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

Robert Bridges, Triolet

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

A. E. Stallings on Writing, On Form and Artifice

THINKING ABOUT A SONNET

CHECKLIST: Writing About A Sonnet

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON CLOSED FORM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

25. OPEN FORM

Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway

FREE VERSE

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death

Ezra Pound, Salutation

William Carlos Williams, The Dance

Stephen Crane, The Heart

Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

PROSE POETRY

Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness

Gertrude Stein, Nothing Elegant

VISUAL POETRY

George Herbert, Easter Wings

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow

CONCRETE POETRY

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red

E. E. Cummings, in Just-

Francisco X. Alarcón, Frontera/Border

Naomi Shihab Nye, The Traveling Onion

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future

THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE

CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

26. SYMBOL

THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL

T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork

THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT

IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

ALLEGORY

Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed

George Herbert, Redemption

Edwin Markham, Outwitted

Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation

Frank O’Hara, To the Harbormaster

Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (XXIX)

Translated by Michael Ortiz, Traveler

Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

William Carlos Williams, Winter Trees

Ted Kooser, Carrie

Mary Oliver, Wild Geese

William Blake, The Tyger

Karen Holden, Bats in a Box

Tami Haaland, Lipstick

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover

Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS

CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbols

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

27. MYTH

THE SUBJECTS AND USES OF MYTH

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay

William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us

H.D., Helen

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen

ARCHETYPE

Louise Bogan, Medusa

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci

PERSONAL MYTH

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School

MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE

Aimee Nezhukumatathil, What I Learned from the Incredible Hulk

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Anne Sexton, Cinderella

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Diane Thiel on Writing, The Map of Myth

THINKING ABOUT MYTH

CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH

Sample Student Paper, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H.D.’s “Helen”

TERMS FOR REVIEW

28. POETRY AND PERSONAL IDENTITY

CONFESSIONAL POETRY

Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus

IDENTITY POETICS

Rhina Espaillat, Bra

CULTURE, RACE, AND ETHNICITY

Claude McKay, America

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California

Francisco X. Alarcón, The X in My Name

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera

Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

GENDER

Anne Stevenson, The Victory

Jenny Factor, Rubyfruit

James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio

Adrienne Rich, Women

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

Brian Turner, The Hurt Locker

Philip Larkin, Aubade

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Rhina P. Espaillat on Writing, Being a Bilingual Writer

THINKING ABOUT POETIC VOICE AND IDENTITY

CHECKLIST: Writing About Voice and Personal Identity

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PERSONAL IDENTITY

TERMS FOR REVIEW

29. POETRY IN SPANISH: LITERATURE OF LATIN AMERICA

Sor Juana, Presente en que el Cariño Hace Regalo la Llaneza

Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection

Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos

Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many

Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindness

Translated by Robert Mezey, On His Blindness

Octavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados

Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed

SURREALISM IN LATIN AMERICAN POETRY

Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas

César Vallejo, La cólera que quiebra al hombre en niños

Translated by Kimberly Gooden, The anger that breaks the man into children

CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN POETRY

José Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traición

Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SPANISH POETRY

30. CELEBRATING EXCELLENCE

THE EFFECT A POEM MAKES

Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face

Emily Dickinson, Safe in their Alabaster Chambers

SENTIMENTALITY

RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

Robert Hayden, Frederick Douglass

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist

THINKING ABOUT EVALUATING A POEM

CHECKLIST: Writing An Evaluation

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATING A POEM

TERMS FOR REVIEW

31. WHAT IS POETRY?

32. THREE CRITICAL CASEBOOKS: Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost

EMILY DICKINSON

Wild Nights — Wild Nights!

“Hope” is the thing with feathers

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain

I’m Nobody! Who are you?

The Soul selects her own Society

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church

Much Madness is divinest Sense

This is my letter to the World

I heard a Fly buzz — when I died

I started Early — Took my Dog

I dwell in Possibility

Because I could not stop for Death

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

EMILY DICKINSON ON WRITING

Recognizing Poetry

Self-Description

CRITICS ON EMILY DICKINSON

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson

Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson’s Manuscripts

Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson

Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of “Because I could not stop for Death”)

LANGSTON HUGHES

The Negro Speaks of Rivers

The Negro

My People

Song for a Banjo Dance

Mother to Son

I, Too

Cross

Song for a Dark Girl

Prayer

Theme for English B

Nightmare Boogie

Harlem [Dream Deferred]

Homecoming

LANGSTON HUGHES ON WRITING

The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain

The Harlem Renaissance

CRITICS ON LANGSTON HUGHES

Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist

Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, The Voices in Langston Hughes

Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes

Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz

ROBERT FROST

Mowing

My November Guest

Mending Wall

After Apple-Picking

The Road Not Taken

Birches

Design

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Fire and Ice

Acquainted with the Night

Desert Places

Home Burial

ROBERT FROST ON WRITING

The Sound of Sense

The Figure a Poem Makes

“There Are Two Types of Realist”: An Interview with Robert Frost

CRITICS ON ROBERT FROST

Katherine Kearns, On “Mending Wall”

Ezra Pound, An Honest Writer

Rhina P. Espaillat, Translating Frost into Spanish

Dana Gioia, Robert Frost’s Dramatic Narratives

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

TOPICS FOR WRITING